Reaction to fire can be defined simply as a material’s contribution to the growth and growth of fire by burning. The construction materials used in the building, as well as the elements inside the building, have a great impact on the start and growth of the fire. The fires starting in places occupied by many people, and the stages of those fires are crucial in terms of the safe evacuation of the place. In this context, the reaction to fire classification of the products used as building materials becomes prominent.
The reaction to fire classification of building materials is determined based on data obtained from the reaction to fire tests performed in accordance with the TS EN 13501-1 standard. The modern testing equipment used in Allianz Teknik Fire Laboratory allows performing accredited tests for reaction to fire and issuing classification reports.
This test is based on Kleinbrenner method with the purpose of measuring the ignitability of building materials when subjected to direct impingement of a small flame at upright position and under zero radiation effect.
Single Flame Source Test
(Single Flame Source Test - EN ISO 11925-2)
In the single flame source test, test samples are directly exposed to a small flame under zero radiation effect. The reaction to fire classification of the sample is determined by observing its flammability, flame-size progress, and physical change characteristics throughout the test.
Building Products Excluding Floorings Exposed to the Thermal Attack by a Single Burning Item
(Single Burning Item – EN 13823)
Today, Single Burning Item (SBI) test is applied to almost all building materials used in Europe, and the building material’s reaction to fire class is determined based on the results of the test.
In the SBI test, all building materials except for flooring are triggered with a single flame source to measure their combustion reactions. Smoke and heat release rates, and physical changes in test samples during the test are assessed to determine the reaction to fire classification of the building materials.
Reaction to Fire Test Using a Radiant Heat Source
(Flooring Radiant Panel – EN ISO 9239-1)
The Flooring Radiant Panel (FRP) test measures the reaction to fire class of the flooring materials exposed to a small source of flame by using a radiant heat source. Heat flux rate and physical changes in test samples during the test are assessed to determine the reaction to fire classification of the flooring materials.
Determination of the Gross Heat of Combustion Test
(Determination of the Gross Heat of Combustion – EN ISO 1716)
This test method involves the combustion of test samples under standard conditions with the presence of pure oxygen to determine their gross heat of combustion. The test data are then assessed to determine the products’ reaction to fire classification.
(Non-Combustibility Test – EN ISO 1182)
The non-combustibility test assesses all building materials (including floorings) whether they would directly contribute to the growth of the fire or not. A number of parameters such as temperature and percent change in mass are measured during the test to determine the reaction to fire classification of the products.